Research Papers

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Impaired Driving: Results from the Ontario Student Drug and Health Survey (OSDUHS)

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Date added July 10, 2018
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Category 2018 CARSP XXVIII Victoria
Tags Research and Evaluation, Session 4A
Author/Auteur Vingilis, Seeley, Wickens, Boak, Mann
Stream/Volet Research and Evaluation

Slidedeck Presentation Only (no paper submitted)

4A - Vingilis

Abstract

ADHD is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that includes symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity with clear evidence of impairment in multiple domains and onset of symptoms by age twelve (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, American Psychiatric Association 2013). A meta-analysis including observational studies primarily with clinical samples showed higher rates of driving violations and collisions for persons with ADHD compared to control groups (Vaa 2014). Vaa (2014) also found that although ADHD drivers had more speeding violations, they did not have more drinking-driving violations. However, an important methodological challenge is the use of clinical samples as they are derived through a series of filters which introduce biases. Only a small portion of those with ADHD symptoms are diagnosed and/or seek treatments (Cuffe et al. 2005). The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships among self-reported screening measures of ADHD, other mental health problems, and impaired driving-related outcomes in a provincially representative sample of high school students living in Ontario. The data used in the study were derived from the 2015 cycle of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health's OSDUHS, a stratified (region and school type), 2-stage (school, class) cluster sample design, representative of Ontario students in grades 7 through 12. Post-stratification weights are calculated for the sex-by-grade distributions within each regional stratum separately to ensure that the respondents in each region were proportionate to the population structure. Sample selected are students 16 years and older with a G2 licence or higher in at least grade 10. Included measures: ADHD symptom measures (Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale-V1.1 (ASRS-V1.1), ADHD medication use); other mental health measures (anxiety/depression) (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12), suicide ideation in last 12 months); substance use measures (standard quantity and frequency questions for alcohol, cannabis (Q-F)); impaired driving-related outcomes (riding with drinking driver, riding with cannabis using driver, driving after drinking, driving after cannabis use) and socio-demographics (gender, age). Of the 539 participants, 17.3% screened positively for ADHD symptoms and 6.5% reported ever using ADHD medication. A significantly higher proportion of students with ADHD symptoms (29.0%) than with no ADHD symptoms (18.8%) reported riding in vehicle with a drinking driver (X2 =4.95, p = .026). Similarly, a significantly higher proportion of students with ADHD symptoms (41.9%) than with no ADHD symptoms (29.3%) reported riding in vehicle with a cannabis using driver (X2 =5.64, p = .018). A significantly higher proportion of students with ADHD symptoms (.15%) than with no ADHD symptoms (.07%) reported driving a vehicle within an hour of drinking 2 or more drinks of alcohol (X2 =7.07, p = .029), although no significant differences were found for driving a vehicle within an hour of using marijuana or hashish. This study shows an association with impaired driving and ADHD symptoms. Additionally, logistic regressions will be presented adjusting for demographics, mental health and substance use.